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رایانه موشک

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رایانه موشک

computer

همۀ موشک های بالستیکی که دارای سامانه هدایت و کنترل(g&c) باشند از رایانه استفاده مینمایند.رایانه ها به طور معمول الکتریکی و الکترومکانیکی هستند.
بر اساس اصول عملکردی،رایانه ها به دو نوع دیجیتال و آنالوگ تقسیم بندی میشوند.ساختمان رایانه ها از مجموعه قطعات الکتریکی و الکترومکانیکی تشکیل شده است.بعضی از این قطعات عبارت اند از:مدارات rc،فیلتر ها،انتگرال گیرها،پتانسیومترها،مدارات پل،تقویت کننده های الکترومغناطیسی،تقویت کننده های ترانزیستوری،مدارات مجتمع(ics)،موتور های همزمان کننده و انتقال دهنده.
پاره از از قسمت های عمدۀ مکانیکی شامل بلبرینگ ها،دنده،شفت و انتگرال گیر های مکانیکی در شکل زیر(شکل اول) نشان داده شده اند.

رایانه موشک

رایانه های دیجیتالی پارامتر های خود را به صورت دوتایی (صفر و یک) قبول نموده و سپس عملیات محاسبه را بر اساس آنها انجام میدهند.این رایانه ها از سامانه شمارش(صفر و یک) استفاده میکنند که نسبت به شمارش دهی از نظر طراحی مدارات مربوط به عملیات محاسباتی ساده تر میباشد.
رایانه های آنالوگ اطلاعات خود را متناسب با تغییر پاره ای از متغیر های مربوط به وضعیت موشک (اثر فشار های وارده از جو بر بدنۀ موشک و یا تغییرات فشار متناسب با ارتفاع) به صورت تغییرات ولتاژ یا جریان دریافت میکنند.این ولتاژ بعداً به شبکۀ مدار های آنالوگ وارد میشود. این مدار ها برای تجزیه و تحلیل و آماده سازی پاسخ جهت انجام واکنش مکانیکی مناسب طراحی شده اند.برخلاف موشک های امروزی در موشک های قدیمی به طور معمول از رایانه های آنالوگ استفاده میشد.این رایانه ها محاسبات را با سرعت زیادی انجام میدهند.

رایانه موشک

موشک ممکن است بیش از یک رایانه داشته باشد.چنانچه موشک سه شتاب سنج داشته باشد،تعداد رایانه های آن شامل 4 دستگاه خواهد بود.سه رایانه از مجموعۀ مذکور مخصوص هدایت و یک رایانه مخصوص کنترل است.رایانۀ کنترل بعد از رایانه های سنجش تغییرات زاویه ای محور عرضی(cross range computer)، اندازه گیری تغییرات ارتفاع(slant altitude computer) و رایانۀ مربوط به تغییرات سرعت و فاصله( slant range computer) فعال میشود. دو رایانۀ مربوط به ارتفاع،سرعت و فاصله ممکن است در یک بخش به نام رایانۀ تغییرات جهت و ارتفاع (lateral axes) قرار گیرند.
رایانه های هدایت،اطلاعات مربوط به تغییرات محور های موشک را به صورت ورودی (input) از شتابسنج ها دریافت کرده و آنها را به شکلی تبدیل میکنند که تغییرات و جا به جایی در موقعیت موشک را بتوان محاسبه نمود.این اطلاعات با اطلاعاتی که قبلا ذخیره یا تنظیم(preset information) شده است مقایسه شده و نتیجه به رایانۀ کنترل ارسال میشود.رایانه اختلاف سیگنالی دریافتی مربوط به هدایت را با سیگنال های مشابه وضعیت مذکور ادغام و حاصل را به صورت خروجی به عملگر ها و سطوح کنترل جهت انجام واکنش مکانیکی مناسب رله میکنند. برای قطع موتور اصلی و کمکی در موشک از رایانۀ تغییرات سمت و ارتفاع (lateral computer) استفاده میشود.
salant range computer
salant altitude computer
cross range computer
lateral computer
control computer

رایانه موشک


 

امیررضا علی اکبری
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