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هدایت اینرسی

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هدایت ناوبری اینرسی

inertial navigate control

ناوبری اینرسی عبارت است ازتشخیص موقیعت یک متحرک مانند هواپیما،موشک و یا کشتی با استفاده از اندازه گیری متغیر های اینرسی نظیر سرعت و شتاب که بوسیله حسگر اینرسی(inertial sensores) انجام میگیرد.سامانه هدایت اینرسی شامل جایروسکوپ ها و شتاب شنج ها هستند.همراه با وسایل مذکور رایانه ها و… قرار دارند.وظیفه جایروسکوپ ها ایجاد مختصات مرجع(x,y,z) برای سنجش تغییرات محور های موشک است.شتاب سنج ها نیز شتاب متحرک را در امتداد محور های مذکور اندازه میگیرند..مرجع اندازه گیری میتواند دستگاه مرجه اینرسی یا دستگاه دیگری مرتبط با زمین باشد.

اینرسی

قبل از پرتاب مختصات l(لانچر(محل پرتاب)) و t(تارگت(محل هدف))و همچنین مسیر پرواز پیش بینی شده و به رایانه داده شده اند.xm و ym توسط شتاب سنج ها اندازه گیری میشوند.مفهوم ناوبری اینرسی(inertial navigate)اگر چه با هدایت اینرسی(inertial guidance) متفاوت است، اما غالبا این دو اصطلاح به جای هم به کار میروند.در صورتی که اطلاعات خروجی از یک سامانه ناوبری اینرسی  با اطلاعات از پیش تعیین شده و مرجع مقایسه شود و نتیجۀ آن بدون دخالت انسان به سامانه کنترل بدون خلبان(auto-pilot)در هواپیمای بدون خلبان یا موشک داده شود،در حقیقت سامانه هدایت اینرسی تشکیل شده که برای یک موشک بالستیک و یا هوا پیمای بدون خلبان کاملا ضروری است.
در نهایت،هدایت اینرسی از بروز خطا در مسیر موشک از نظر(سمت و فاصله)جلوگیری کرده  و باعث میشود تا موشک مسیر تعیین شده را طی نماید.این سامانه دارای 3 کانال مربوط به پارامتر های پرواز (جهت،سرعت،فاصله)است.این نوع هدایت و ناوبری به دو نوع ناوبری اینرسی با صفحات ثابت(stable table inertial) و ناوبری اینرسی با تجهیزات مستحکم وصل شده به بدنه(strap-down) تقسیم میشوند. در هر دو سامانه هدایت اینرسی اعم از سامانه اینرسی یا تجهیزات محکم بسته شده و سامانه هدایت با صفحه پایدار سه جایرو و شتاب سنج مورد نیاز است.از مزایایی هدایت اینرسی مقاوم بودن آن در برابر پارازیت و اختلالات الکترونیکی میباشد.

اینرسی


امیررضا علی اکبری
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‏27 دیدگاه در نوشته‌ی “هدایت اینرسی

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