کاربرد هایی از مولاریته و مولالیته

کاربرد هایی از مولاریته و مولالیته

1-بدست آوردن دمای جوش محلول(Tb)

همانطور که میدانیم ناخالصی ها باعث تغییر در نقطه جوش یک محلول یا ماده میشوند.

مثلا با اضافه کردن200g نمک به 5lit آب دمای جوش آب  °C 107 میشود.

اما برای بدست آوردن دمای جوش یک محلول باید از فرمول زیر پیش برویم:

(تغیراتی که حل شونده ایجاد میکند)ΔTb+(دمای جوش حلال)(T)=(دمای جوش محلول)(T)

kb=ΔTb(عدد افزایش دمای جوش حلال)×m(مولالیته)

نکته:kb(عدد افزایش دمای جوش حلال)عددی است که هر ماده ای آن را دارد و نشان میدهد که اگر یک گرم ناخالصی به آن اضافه شود جند درجه سانتی گراد دمایش بالا میرود.مثال:




مثال :400g نمک را در 7lit آب حل میکنیم دمای جوش این محلول چند درجه سانتی گراد است؟



kb=ΔTb(عدد افزایش دمای جوش حلال)×m(مولالیته)





دمای جوش محلول100.31=100+0.31=(محلولT)

2-بدست آوردن دمای ذوب یک محلول(T)

میدانیم با اضافه کردن ناخالصی به حلال هایی مانند آب دمای ذوب آن ها پایین می آید اما برای اینکه بفهمیم چند درجه از فرمول زیر استفاده میکنیم:

(ΔTf)-(حلالT)=(Tf محلول)

m X kf=ΔTf

نکته:(kf)هم همانند(kb) یک عدد است.عددی که نشان میدهد اگر یک گرم ناخالصی  به ماده اضافه شود دمای ذوبش چند درجه کم میشود.






400g شکر را در 7lit آب میریزیم،نقطه ذوب این محلول چند درجه سانتی گراد است؟

(ΔTf)-(حلالT)=(Tf محلول)


m X kf=ΔTf




دمای ذوب محلول0.013-=0-0.013=T

3-فشار اسمزی:

واحد های فشار اسمزی:





یکی از کاربرد های مولاریته به دست آوردن فشار اسمزی یک محلول است.

فشار اسمزی:میدانیم مولکولهای مواد میتوانند از یک غشای نیمه تراوا(نیمه نفوذ پذیر)رد شوند.به فشاری که باید به آن مولکول وارد کنیم که نتواند از غشای نیمه تراوا رد شود فشار اسمزی میگویند.

فشار اسمزی(π)از رابطه ی زیر به دست می آید:

M(مولاریته)R(ثابت جهانی گاز ها(0.0821))T(دمای محیط به کلوین)=π



200g نمک را در 300g آب حل میکنیم فشار اسمزی این محلول چند اتمسفر است؟(دمای محیط400کلوین است)










کاربرد هایی از مولاریته و مولالیته


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