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روبیدیم

روبیدیم

روبیدیم( Rubidium)
نام: روبیدیم
نماد: Rb
عدد اتمی:37
عدد جرمی: 85
جرم اتمی: 85.46 gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی: [Kr]5s¹
دمای ذوب:°39 سلسیوس
دمای جوش: °688 سلسیوس
چگالی: 1.53 gr/cm³

این عنصر فلزی نرم و نقره ای با دمای ذوب پایین در گروه فلزات قلیایی است. بعد از پتاسیم و قبل از سزیم قرار دارد. بسیار واکنش پذیر بوده و در مجاورت هوا آتش گرفته و منفجر می شود. به همین دلیل آن را در شیشه های سر بسته در مجاورت آرگون قرار می دهند.
به شدت با آب و بخار آب واکنش داده و منفجر می شود.شعله ای به رنگ آبی کمرنگ دارد.
واکنش آن 1000 بار قوی تر از پتاسیم دارد.

موجودات زنده برای ادامهٔ زندگی به این عنصر نیاز ندارند با این حال یون‌های این عنصر همانگونه که یون‌های پتاسیم در سامانه‌های زنده نقش دارند، رفتار می‌کنند: به این ترتیب که این یون‌ها به صورت فعال توسط سلول‌های گیاهی و جانوری جذب می‌شوند.

در هوای محیط. ۸۵Rb تنها ایزوتوپ پایدار این عنصر است . ۸۷Rb ایزوتوپ دیگر این عنصر است که دچار واپاشی هسته‌ای می‌گردد و نیمه‌عمری برابر با ۴۹ میلیارد سال دارد بیش از سه برابر عمر برآورد شده برای جهان. ۸۷Rb نزدیک به ۲۸٪ روبیدیم طبیعی موجود را تشکیل می‌دهد. شیمی‌دان آلمانی روبرت بونزن و گوستاو کیرشهف در سال ۱۸۶۱ این عنصر را کشف کردند آن‌ها به کمک روش طیف‌سنجی تابشی این عنصر را پیدا کردند. این عنصر به آسانی بخار می‌شود و بازهٔ گسترده‌ای از طیف‌ها را جذب می‌کند و این باعث می‌شود که این عنصر هدف معمول دستکاری لیزری اتم‌ها شود.

میان فلزهای قلیایی غیر پرتوزا دومین عنصری است که بیشترین الکترونگاتیوی را دارد. مانند دیگر عناصر گروه خود به شدت با آب وارد واکنش می‌شود، با جیوه تشکیل ملغمه و با طلا، آهن، سزیم، سدیم و پتاسیم می‌تواند تشکیل آلیاژ دهد. با وجود آنکه روبیدیم و لیتیم هر دو در یک گروه جای دارند ولی نمی‌توانند با هم تشکیل آلیاژ دهند.

روبیدیم

روبیدیم

روبیدیم

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روبیدیم مایع


امیرمحمدمحمدحسینی

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