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آنتیموان

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آنتیموان

( Antimony )
نام:آنتیموان،روی سخت یا روی سخت مصری
نماد:Sb
عدد اتمی:51
عدد جرمی:121
جرم اتمی:121.76 gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی: 5s²4d10 4p³[Kr]
چگالی:6.69 gr/cm³
دمای ذوب:°630 C
دمای جوش:°1585 C
فلزی براق و شکننده است. ساختار های بلور آن به قدری شکننده است که به راحتی پوسته پوسته شده و می ریزد.
این عنصر در متنهای کهن فارسی به نام روی سخته یا روی سخته مصری نامیده شده است.نام این عنصر از واژه یونانی “anti-monos” گرفته شده است که معنای “غیر تنها” می دهد چرا که در گذشته تصور بر این بود که این عنصر به صورت خالص وجود ندارد.
این عنصر نیز همچون آلوتروپ، شبه فلزش دارای جلای فلزی سفید مایل به آبی و بسیار شکننده است. همچنین ساختار بلورین دارد و بلافاصله پوسته پوسته می شود. این عنصر خالص و ترکیباتش بسیار سمی است؛ پس باید در کار با آنها احتیاط لازم را به کار بست. منبع اصلی این عنصر کانی به نام استیبنیت است که سولفیدی از آن عنصر است. همچنین در کانی های دیگر از جمله آلمینیت و گهگاهی به صورت خالص یافت می شود گر چه تا قرن هفدهم کسی نتوانسته بود آن را به شکل خالص از کانی جدا کند. آنتیموان در دمای اتاق با هوا واکنش نمی‌دهد اما روی شعله بلافاصله با نور درخشانی می سوزد و مقادیر فراوانی گاز های سفید تولید می کند. آنتیموان رسانایی ضعیف برای گرما و الکتریسیته است و به همین دلیل جز سازنه مناسبی در مواد نیمه رسانای میکروالکترونیکهاست.
خصوصیات قابل توجه
آنتیموان در حالت عنصری خود شکننده ، گدازپذیر ، نقره فام و بلوری است که خاصیت هدایت الکتریکی و حرارتی ضعیفی دارد و در دمای کم تبخیر می‌شود. شبه فلز آنتیموان از نظر ظاهری و خصوصیات فیزیکی شبیه فلز است، اما از نظر شیمیایی مثل فلز واکنش نمی‌دهد. همچنین این عنصر مورد حمله اسیدهای اکسید کننده و هالوژنها قرار می‌گیرد.
فراوانی آنتیموان در پوسته زمین بین ppm 5,0 تا 0,2 برآورد شده است. آنتیموان ، کالکوفیل است و با گوگرد و فلزات سنگین سرب ، مس و نقره وجود دارد.
استفاده از آنتیموان در صنایع نیمه هادی و در تولید دیود ها ، موج یابهای مادون قرمز و وسایل Hall-effect رو به افزایش است.
این شبه فلز ، بصورت آلیاژ موجب افزایش سختی و مقاومت مکانیکی سرب می‌شود. مهمترین کاربرد فلز آنتیموان بعنوان سخت‌کننده سرب در خازنها می‌باشد.
در باطریها
آلیاژهای ضد اصطکاک
فلز ویژه حروف چاپ
گلوله های رسام و جنگ‌افزارهای کوچک
روکش کابل
از ترکیبات این عنصر به‌صورت اکسیدها ، سولفیدها ، آنتیمونات سدیم و تری‌کلرید آنتیموان در ساخت ترکیبات ضدحریق ، لعاب سرامیک ، شیشه ، رنگ و سفالگری استفاده می‌شود. تری‌اکسید این عنصر مهمترین ترکیبات آنتیموان است و بیشتر در تنظیمات واپسگر آتش بکار می‌رود. کاربردهای واپسگر آتش در مواردی مثل لباس بچه ، اسباب بازی ، هواپیما و روکش صندلی اتومبیل است.
هشدار
آنتیموان و بسیاری از ترکیبات آن ، سمی هستند.

آنتیموان


 

امیرمحمدمحمدحسینی
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