MWX

ید

به نام خدا

ید

(Iodine)
نام: ید
نماد:I
عدد اتمی:53
عدد جرمی: 126
جرم اتمی:126.90gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی:5s²4d10 5p5[Kr]
چگالی:4.93 gr/cm³
دمای ذوب°:113.7 سانتی گراد
دمای جوش: °184.3 سانتی گراد
 نافلزی بنفش در گروه هالوژن ها است که برای سلامت انسان واجب است.
عنصری است حل نشدنی که مقدار بسیار کم آن برای موجودات زنده لازم است. واکنش پذیری اش از تمامی هالوژنها کمتراست و الکترون دهنده ترین هالوژن شبه فلز می‌باشد. ازاین عنصر عمدتاً” در پزشکی، عکاسی و رنگ استفاده می‌شود.
ید ( واژه یونانِ iodes به معنی بنفش) در سال 1811 توسط برنارد کورلوس کشف شد.
ید عنصر جامد درخشانی است به رنگ آبی مایل به سیاه که در دماهای استاندارد به بخاری بنفش رنگ و بد بو تبدیل می‌گردد.این هالوژن همچنین با بسیاری از عناصر، ترکیباتی را می‌سازد اما از سایر عناصر گروه هالوژنها فعالیت کمتری داشته و دارای خصوصیاتی شبیه فلزات است.ید به راحتی در کلروفرم، تتراکلرید کربن یا دی سولفید کربن حل شده و محلولهای ارغوانی رنگی بوجود می‌آورد( تنها به مقدار کمی در آب قابل حل است) .رنگ آبی سیر با محلول نشاسته ویژگی ید آزاد می‌باشد.
برای این عنصر 30 ایزوتوپ وجود دارد که تنها یکی از آنها I-127 پایدار است.از ایزوتوپ رادیواکتیو مصنوعی I-131 ( ساطع کننده بتا) که دارای نیمه عمر 8 روز است برای درمان سرطان و دیگر بیماریهای غده تیروئید استفاده می‌گردد.معمول ترین ترکیبات ید عبارتند از یدیدهای سدیم و پتاسیم ( KI) و یدیتها ( KIO3).
ید فقط یک ایزوتوپ پایدار I-127 دارد.با این همه ایزوتوپهای رادیواکتیو ید کاربردهای وسیعی دارند.I-129 با نیمه عمر 17 میلیون سال محصولی از پراش Xe-129 در اتمسفر است اما نتیجه فروپاشی U-238 نیز می‌باشد.چون U-238در خلال فعالیتهای مربوط به انرژی هسته‌ای تولید می‌شود، وجود آن ( به نسبت I-129/I) می‌تواند فعالیتهای در حال انجام در هر مکان را مشخص کند.به همین علت از I-129 در مطالعات آب باران بعد از حادثه چرنوبیل استفاده شد.از آن همچنین بعنوان ردیاب آبهای زیر زمینی و نشان دهنده پراکندگی فضولات در محیط زیست استفاده می‌گردد.سایر کاربردها ممکن است بوسیله تولید I-129 در پوسته زمین ازطریق تعدادی مکانیسم فروپاشی مختل شود.
I-129 از جهات زیادی شبیه Cl-36|chlorine است. این ایزوتوپ، هالوژنی قابل حل و نسبتاً” واکنش ناپذیر است که بیشتر بصورت آنیونی non-sorbing یافت شده و بوسیله واکنشهای کیهانزاد، حرارت اتمی و ثابت تولید می‌شود. درمطالعات آب شناسی چگاله‌های I-129 معمولاً” به نسبت I-129 به مقدار کلی I گزارش می‌شود( که عملاً” I-127 است).چون نسبتهـــــــــای Cl-36/Cl,I-129/I در طبیعت تقریباً” کم می‌باشد ( 14-10تا 10-10) اوج حرارت اتمی I-129/I در طول دهه 70 و 80 تقریباً” به 7-10رسید.I-129 با Cl-36 در بعضی موارد فرق دارد؛ نیمه عمر آن طولانی تر است ( vs6/1 ، 3/0 میلیون سال)، به شدت biophilic است و به اشکال یونی چندگانه وجود دارد ( معمولاً” I- و یودیت) که دارای رفتار شیمیایی متفاوتی هستند.
خطرات
تماس مستقیم آن با پوست ممکن است آسیبهایی را به همراه داشته باشد پس هنگام کار با ید باید بسیار احتیاط نمود.بخار ید باعث دردناک شدن چشم و غشاء مخاطی می‌شود.حداکثر مقدار مجاز ید در هوا نباید از 1 میلی گرم در هر متر مکعب فراتر رود.

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