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باریم

به نام خدا

باریم

( Barium)
نماد: Ba
عدد اتمی:56
عدد جرمی:137
جرم اتمی:137.327gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی: 6s²[Xe]
چگالی:3.65gr/cm³
دمای ذوب:°725 c
دمای جوش:°1640 c
 عنصری فلزی در دسته فلزات قلیایی خاکی است که دارای جلایی به رنگ طلایی مات است.
کانی باریت در سال 1774 از سنگ آهک توسط Scheele کشف شد.
این عنصر فقط به صورت ترکیب یافت می شود. و مهمترین ترکیبات آن با سولفات، کربنات است و این عنصر از الکترولیز کلرید به دست می آید.
در حالت خالص به رنگ سفید نقره ای است . از گروه فلزات قلیایی خاکی است و از نظر شیمیایی به کلسیم شباهت دارد . این ماده به راحتی اکسید می شود و حتماً باید زیر نفت نگهداری شود تا هوا به آن نرسد . این عنصر توسط آب و الکل تجزیه می شود.
از مهمترین ترکیبات آن پراکسید ، کلرید ، سولفات ، کربنات ، نیترات و کلرات هستند . Lithopone ( لیتوپن ) یک دانه رنگی است که سولفات این عنصر و سولفید روی را شامل می شود و دارای توان پوششی خوب است . سولفات مانند ماده ای سفید پایدار در نقاشی ، ساخت شیشه و کارهای تشخیصی با اشعه x استفاده می شود . از کربنات برای مرگ موش استفاده می شود در حالیکه نیترات و کلرات در آتش بازی بکار می روند . سولفید ناخالص بعد از پرتوگیری در قابل نور تابیده می شود . تمام ترکیبات این عنصر که در آب یا اسید قابل حل هستند سمی اند . این عنصر از مخلوط 7 ایزوتوپ پایدار بدست می آید .
اثرات این عنصر بر روی سلامتی
میزان باریم طبیعی موجود در محیط زیست بسیار اندک است. مقدار زیاد این عنصر تنها در خاک و در غذاهایی مانند آجیل، جلبک دریایی، ماهی و گیاهان خاصی یافت می شود. معمولا مقدار باریم موجود در غذا و آب آنقدر زیاد نیست که سلامتی را به خطر بیندازد. افرادی که در صنعت این عنصر فعالیت می کنند، بیشتر از سایرین در معرض خطر هستند. قسمت عمده این عوارض در اثر تنفس هوایی که حاوی سولفات باریم یا کربنات باریم است، ایجاد می شوند.
در بسیاری از محلهای دفن زباله مقدار مشخصی از این عنصر وجود دارد. افرادی که در نزدیکی این مکانها زندگی می کنند، در معرض خطر هستند. عوارض ناشی از باریم در اثر تنفس گرد و غبارباریم، خوردن خاک یا گیاهان یا آب آشامیدنی آلوده به باریم ایجاد می شوند. تماس با پوست هم ممکن است باعث آلودگی شود.
عوارض ناشی از باریم بستگی به میزان انحلال پذیری ترکیبات آن دارد. آن دسته از ترکیبات باریم که در آب محلول هستند برای سلامتی انسان مضر می باشند. جذب مقدار زیادی از باریم محلول در آب باعث فلج و در بعضی موارد مرگ می شود.
مقادیر اندک باریم محلول در آب باعث مشکلات تنفسی، افزایش فشار خون، تغییرات ضربان قلب، سوزش معده، ضعف ماهیچه ها، تغییر واکنشهای عصبی، تورم مغز و آسیب کبد، کلیه و قلب می شود.
سرطان زایی باریم در انسان ثابت نشده است. به علاوه در مورد این که باریم باعث ناباروی یا نقص مادرزادی شود هم مدرکی وجود ندارد.
ایزوتوپ نیمه عمر
‏Ba-130 پایدار
‏Ba-131 11.7 روز
‏Ba-132 پایدار
‏Ba-133 10.5 سال
‏Ba-133m 1.6 روز
‏Ba-134 پایدار
‏Ba-135 پایدار
‏Ba-135m 1.2 روز
‏Ba-136 پایدار
‏Ba-137 پایدار
‏Ba-137m 2.6 دقیقه
‏Ba-138 پایدار
‏Ba-139 1.4 ساعت
‏Ba-140 12.8 روز
‏Ba-141 18.3 دقیقه
‏Ba-142 10.7 دقیقه

باریم

باریم


 

امیرمحمد محمد حسینی

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