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لانتانیم

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لانتانیم

( Lanthanum)
نام: لانتانیم، لانتان
نماد:La
عدد اتمی:57
عدد جرمی:138
جرم اتمی:138.90gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی:[Xe]6s²4f¹
چگالی: 6.162 gr/cm³
دمای ذوب:°920 سانتی گراد
دمای جوش:°3464 سانتی گراد
لانتان فلزی است در دسته لانتانید ها و اولین عضو این گروه است.
واژه لانتانیم از کلمه یونانی lanthanein به معنی پنهان شده گرفته شده است.
مونازیت ( Ce,La,Th,Nd,y,PO4) و بستنازیت (Ce,La,Y,CO3F) ، کانی‌های اصلی هستند که حاوی به‌ترتیب 25 و 38 درصد لانتانیم می‌باشند.
عنصر فلزی سیمین رنگی است که به گروه سوم جدول تناوبی تعلق دارد و اغلب بعنوان جزوی از لانتانیدها به‌حساب می‌آید. این عنصر در بعضی از کانی‌های خاکی کمیاب و بیشتر بصورت ترکیب با سریم و عناصر خاکی کمیاب دیگر یافت می‌شود. لانتانیم ، انعطاف پذیر و چکش خوار بوده و به قدری نرم است که با چاقو بریده می‌شود. این عنصر یکی از واکنش‌پذیرترین فلزات خاکی کمیاب است.
کاربرد ها
کاربردهای نورپردازی کربنی بخصوص در صنعت سینما برای روشنایی و پیش‌تابی استودیو
La2O3 مقاوت قلیایی شیشه را افزایش داده و در ساخت عینکهای خاص ، مانند نمونه‌های زیر بکار می‌رود:
جذب کننده اشعه مادون قرمز
لنزهای دوربین و تلسکوپ ( به علت ضریب شکست بالا و پراکندگی کم ، از شیشه‌های دارای فلز خاکی کمیاب استفاده می‌شود.
افزودن مقدار کمی لانتانیم به فولاد ، باعث افزایش انعطاف‌پذیری ، چکش‌خواری و مقاوت آن در برابر ضربه می‌شود.
افزودن مقدار کم لانتانیم به آهن ، به تولید ذرات گرد چدن کمک می‌کند.
افزودن مقدار کم لانتانیم به مولیبدن ، موجب کاهش سختی این فلز و حساسیت آن نسبت به دماهای مختلف می‌شود.
فلز آمیخته که یک آلیاژ آذرفشان است و در سنگ فندک بکار می‌رود، حاوی 45% تا 25% لانتانیم است.
اکسید و بورید آن در لامپهای الکترونی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند.
آلیاژهای هیدروژنی اسفنجی می‌توانند دارای لانتانیم باشند. این نوع آلیاژها در یک فرآیند جذب برگشت‌پذیر تا 400 برابر حجم گاز هیدروژن خود گنجایش دارند.
کاتالیزور کراکینگ بنزین
تور فانوس گازی
ترکیب جلا دهنده شیشه و سنگهای قیمتی
La-Ba ، تعیین کننده قدمت سنگها و کانیها است.
ایزوتوپ ها
لانتانیم ، بطور طبیعی دارای یک ایزوتوپ پایدار و یک ایزوتوپ رادیواکتیو است. La-139 و La-138 که ایزوتوپ 139 فراوان‌ترین (فراوانی طبیعی 99,91%) آنها است. 31 رادیوایزوتوپ هم برای آن مشخص شده که پایدارترین آنها La-138 با نیمه عمر حدود 11 سال و La-137 با نیمه عمر 60000 سال می‌باشد. مابقی ایزوتوپهای رادیواکتیو آن ، نیمه عمری کمتر از 24 ساعت دارند که نیمه عمر اکثر آنها کمتر از یک دقیقه است. همچنین این عنصر دارای 3 meta state می‌باشد. وزن اتمی ایزوتوپهای لانتانیم ، بین (amu120 ( La-120 تا amu152(La-152) است.

لانتانیم

لانتانیم

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امیرمحمد محمد حسینی
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