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نئودیمیم

به نام خدا

نئودیمیم

( Neodymium )
نام: نئودیمیم
نماد: Nd
عدد اتمی:60
عدد جرمی:144
جرم اتمی:144.242 gr/mol
دمای ذوب:°1024 سانتی گراد
آرایش الکترونی:[Xe]6s²4f⁴
دمای جوش:°3074 سانتی گراد
چگالی:7.01 gr/cm³
فلزیست پارامغناطیس و دارای جلای و فلزی. عضوی از لانتانیدها است و برای ساخت آهن ربا های قوق العاده قوی استفاده می شود.
یک فلز خاکی کمیاب است که به مقدار18% در فلزخاکی کمیاب قابل اشتعال وجود دارد.این فلز دارای درخشش فلزی ورنگ آن نقره‌ای روشن بوده ویکی از واکنش پذیرترین فلزات خاکی کمیاب به حساب می‌آید؛  در معرض هوا به سرعت کدر شده و تولید اکسیدی می‌کند که باعث پوسته پوسته شدن این فلز می‌گردد. این امر موجب اکسیداسیون بیشتر این فلز می‌شود.
بخشی از دیدیمیم است که در رنگ آمیزی شیشه‌ عینک‌های جوشکاری به کار می‌رود. از این عنصر در رنگ آمیزی شیشه هایی که دارای یک طیف ملایم بین بنفش خالص تا قرمز و خاکستری می‌باشند استفاده می‌شود. نوری که از این شیشه‌ها ساطع می‌گردد نوار جذبی درخشانی را پدیدار می‌کنند. از این نوع شیشه در فعالیتهای نجومی برای تولید نوارهای درخشانی که به‌وسیله آنها احتمال درجه بندی خطوط طیفی وجود دارد استفاده می‌شود.شیشه حاوی این عنصر یک ماده لیزری است که به جای یاقوت برای تولید نورهم نوسان بکار می‌رود. این عنصر همچنین برای زدودن رنگ سبز شیشه‌ها که ناشی از آلاینده‌های آهن است مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. نمکهای این عنصر به‌عنوان رنگ افزا ی لعاب‌ها کاربرد دارند. این عنصر در آهن رباهای دائمی بسیار قوی Nd2Fe14B بکار می‌روند. این نوع آهن رباها از انواع آهنرباهای کبالت – سامریم ارزانتر هستند.این آهنربای فوق العاده توانایی های عجیبی دارد به طوری که دو تکه چند سانتی متر مکعبی آن می تواند روی ساعت 10000 دلاری اپل واچ را خرد کند.
این عنصر هرگزدرطبیعت بصورت عنصر آزاد یافت نمی‌شود بلکه بیشتر در کانیهایی از قبیل شن مونازیـــت (Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y(PO4 و باستنوسیت (Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y(CO3)F) که حاوی مقادیر کمی از تمامی فلزات خاکی کمیاب هستند وجود دارد. این عنصر در فلزخاکی کمیاب قابل اشتعال نیز دیده می‌شود اما جدا نمودن آن از سایر عناصر قلیایی خاکی دشوار است.
این عنصر بطور طبیعی دارای 5 ایزوتوپ پایدارNd-142 ,Nd-143,Nd-145,Nd-146,Nd-148 که فراوان‌ترین آنها نئودیمیم 142 « فراوانی طبیعی 2/27%) و 2 ایزوتوپ پرتوزای Nd144 وNd150 می‌باشد.31 رادیوایزوتوپ هم برای این عنصر شناسایی شده که که پایدارترین آنها نئودیمیم 150 با نیمه عمر19سال( E 1/1)، نئودیمیم 144 با نیمه عمر 15 سال ( E29/2) و نئودیمیم 147 با نیمه عمر 98/10 روز می‌باشند. مابقی ایزوتوپهای رادیواکتیو این عنصر دارای نیمه عمرهایی کمتر از 38/3 روز هستند که بیشتر آنها نیمه عمری کمتر از 71 ثانیه دارند. نئودیمیم همچنین دارای 4 حالت متا است که پایدارترین آنها نئودیمیم m139 ( t1/25.5 ساعت)، نئودیمیم m135 ( t1/2 5.5 دقیقه) و نئودیمیم m141 (t1/2 62 ثانیه )هستند.
حالت فروپاشی اولیه قبل از فراوان‌ترین ایزوتوپ (نئودیمیم142) جذب الکترون و حالت فروپاشی پس از آن فروپاشی منفی بتا می‌باشد. محصول فروپاشی اولیه قبل از نئودیمیم 142 ایزوتوپهای Pr« پرازئودیمیم) و محصولات اولیه پس از آن ایزوتوپهای سرب می‌باشد.
خطرات
تمامی ترکیبات این عنصر را باید شدیدا سمی به حساب آورد. همچنین ترکیبات نئودیمیم موجب آسیبهای چشم و پوست گشته و گرد این عنصر خطر انفجار و آتش زایی دارد.

نئودیمیم

نئودیمیم

آهن ربای بسیار قوی ساخته شده از این عنصر

 
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‏182 دیدگاه در نوشته‌ی “نئودیمیم

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