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پرومتیم

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پرومتیم

پرومتیم(Promethium)
نام: پرومتیم
نماد:Pm
عدد اتمی:61
عدد جرمی:144
جرم اتمی:144.91gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی: [Xe]6s²4f5
دمای ذوب:°1168 سانتی گراد
دمای جوش:°2469 سانتی گراد
چگالی:7.22 gr/cm³
عنصری فلزی است در دسته لانتانید ها. اولین لانتانید رادیو اکتیو است.
در بین ۹۲ عنصر اول جدول تناوبی فقط دو عنصر تکنسیم (۴۳) و پرومتیم (۶۱) در طبیعت یافت نمی‌شوند. یکی از دلایل این موضوع این است که به طور کلی عناصر با عدد اتمی فرد تعداد ایزوتوپ‌های پایدار کم تری نسبت به عناصر با عدد اتمی زوج دارند.
گمقادير ناچيز در طبيعت به صورت محصولي از شكافت هسته‌اي اورانيم، توريم و پلوتونيم و در كاني‌هايي از جمله پيچبلند يافت مي‌شود. مي‌توان به اين صورت آن را از سوخت اورانيم مصرف شده در رآكتورهاي هسته‌اي جدا كرد. نخستين بار بين سال هاي 1941 تا 1947 توسط گروهي به سرپرستي جي، مارينسكي به صورت مصنوعي توليد و كشف شد. اين عنصر از بمباران ذره اي نئوديميم . پرازئوديميم به دست آمد. از پرومتيم در رنگ هاي فسفري (درخشان) استفاده مي‌شود و نام اين عنصر نيز مؤيد اين مطلب است، زيرا گفته مي شود كه پرومتئوس آتش را از آسمان دزديد و براي نخستين بار آن را به بشر داد. اين عنصر منبعي از پرتوهاي ايكس نيز مي‌باشد. همچنين از اجزاي سازنده باتري هاي هسته‌اي مورد استفاده در هواپيماها مي باشد.
ایزوتوپ از این عنصر شناسایی شده است که در این میان پایدارترین ایزوتوپ ۱۴۵Pm با نیمه عمر ۱۷٫۷ سال است.

پرومتیم


 

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