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ساماریم

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ساماریم

ساماریم( Samarium)
نام:ساماریم
نماد:Sm
عدد اتمی:62
عدد جرمی:150
جرم اتمی:150.36 gr/mol
آرایش الکترونی:6s²4f6 [Xe]
چگالی:7.54 gr/cm³
دمای ذوب:°1077 سانتی گراد
دمای جوش:°1791 سانتی گراد
عنصری فلزی در دسته لانتلنید هاست. رنگش به آبی مایل به بنفش می خورد.
ساماریم در سال 1879 توسط پول امیل در فرانسه کشف شد. نام این عنصر از کلمه ی سامارسکیت(یک ماده ی معدنی) گرفته شده است. این عنصر توسط طیف سنجی به دلیل خطوط جذب تیزش شناخته شد. وی این عنصر را از ماده معدنی سامارسکیت که برای بزرگداشت کولونل سامارسکی (ریئس معادن روسیه) به این نام خوانده می شد، کشف کرد.
کاربرد
آلیاژ استحکام بالای مغناطیسی ساماریم-کبالت کاربردهای بسیاری از سال 1970 پیدا کرده است، مانند دستگاه نوار کاست، دیسک خوان های کامپیوتر، هدفن و بلندگو.
ساخت ضربه گیرهای تک سیم پیچ بدون صدا با استفاده از ساماریم کبالت مغناطیسی انجام می شود.
لیزرهای X-ray ساماریمی که در رادیوگرافی کاربرد دارند.
فلزی سخت، شکننده، که به سرعت لایه نازکی از اکسید در هوا تشکیل می‌دهد. احیا کننده قوی. در ۱۵۰c درجه آتش می‌گیرد، هیدروژن آب را آزاد می‌کند. جرم حجمی ۵۳/۷ نقطهٔ ذوب ۱۰۷۲c درجه نقطه جوش ۱۹۰۰c درجه سختی آن مشابه آهن است. جذب نوترونی آن زیاد است. اشتعال‌پذیر است. تنها ذره آلفا صادر می‌کند و به نئودیمی‌یم تبدیل می‌شود.
در سال ۱۸۷۹ ماری‌نیاک این اکسید را از اریبای خام به‌دست آورد.
ساماریم در استرالیا، برزیل، جنوب شرقی آمریکا و آفریقای جنوبی کشف گردیده است.
جاذب نوترون، پژوهش‌های متالورژیکی، آهنرباهای دائمی ناخالصی برای بلورهای لیزر کاربرد دارد.
فلز ساماریم دارای ۵ ایزوتوپ پایدار ۱۴۴Sm, ۱۴۹Sm, ۱۵۰Sm, ۱۵۲Sm و ۱۵۴Sm است که در این میان ۱۵۲Sm با فراوانی طبیعی ۲۶٫۷۵٪ فراوان ترین ایزوتوپ این عنصر است.

 

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